Avoka Blog: Adobe LiveCycle

March 17, 2009

Speedup JBoss LiveCycle Startup

JBoss Start-up Performance

Starting JBoss with a fully configured LiveCycle installation can take an awfully long time! We’ve done some digging and found that a large portion of this time is spent unpacking the LiveCycle EAR file – and copying these files into the jboss/server/all/tmp directory. In fact a fully configured LiveCycle EAR can amount to over 800 MB of data being written – which adds a considerable amount of time to the start-up.

JBoss supports unpacked EAR and WAR files in the deploy directory, which will save these files from being unpacked at start-up time. To simplify this we’ve created a small utility that unpacks the LiveCycle EAR file and all of its contents into the deploy directory.  

We’ve found that its halved the JBoss start-up time – on my laptop this saved nearly 8 minutes – which is lots when you have to restart Jboss often.


Download Link



  1. Download the utility and unzip the file. You should have a file called “AdobeJBossEarUnpacker.jar
  2. Run the Jar – it will prompt you for the location of the JBoss deploy directory (typically its under your LiveCycle install directory in /jboss/server/all/deploy).
  3. That’s it. It will create a copy of your LiveCycle.ear file then proceed to unpack LiveCyle inside your deploy directory. Whenever you need to redeploy LiveCycle make sure you delete the exploded directory first. 

Startup Sequence

While we are on the topic of starting JBoss another really handy trick is to make use of the “deploy.last” sub-directoy. Any files placed in this directory won’t be deployed until all the files in the main deploy directrry have started. This can be very handy when you have an application that is dependant on a LiveCycle service – which means that you don’t want it to start until LiveCycle its-self has fully started.

PS – Thanks to Malcolm Edgar for some great investigative work and creating the unpacker util.


March 2, 2009

Which “bit” of LiveCycle do I need?

Filed under: Components, LiveCycle, LiveCycle Architecture — htreisman @ 7:45 pm


LiveCycle has a lot of components, somewhere around 15 last time I counted. Some run on the server, some run on the client, some you cannot actually buy but are bundled with others – it’s really confusing, even for those of us who specialize in LiveCycle. But if you’re new to LiveCycle, we don’t blame you for feeling a little lost.

This blog entry attempts to match up your requirements to the various bits of LiveCycle that you may need.

I want to…

Put a “print and fill” PDF form on my site

What you need: Acrobat.

You don’t need LiveCycle, you just need Acrobat. Create your form using whatever tools you like (InDesign, FrameMaker, Word, even Excel) and convert it to a PDF using Acrobat. Your users can download it, print it out, and use a pen to fill it out.

What else you get:

  • You get the joy of having to open a whole lot of envelopes, sort the contents, and give the illegible hand-writing to someone to do the data entry into your systems.
  • You get the added joy of having incomplete or invalid information in the forms, and having to get back in touch with the user to gather the missing and/or correct information.
  • Sigh…

Put a PDF SmartForm on my site, and allow users to fill it out electronically and print it out

What you need: LiveCycle Designer.

Use LiveCycle Designer to create the SmartForm. If your SmartForm is pretty straight forward, you may be able to do this yourself. Alternately, you may need to attend a Designer Training Course, or enlist the help of an Adobe Partner. <shameless-plug>www.avoka.com </shameless-plug>. LiveCycle Designer is a very powerful tool, and you can do amazing things with it – but if you don’t have a programming background, you will quickly get lost in the more complex aspects of the tool.

What else you get:

  • You still need to have someone read the printed form and enter the data into your backend systems. However, it’s much easier to read a printed form than a hand-written one.
  • OCR (Optical Character Recognition) is much more reliable and accurate with typed forms than hand-written ones.
  • SmartForms can really make it easier for your end users by providing in-line help, can automatically hide those sections of the form that aren’t relevant, auto-complete, auto-fill, and provide other assistance to your users when filling in forms.
  • SmartForms can ensure that the data you receive is complete and error free, by identifying mandatory fields and validations. Forms won’t print until all mandatory fields and validations pass.

Allow a user to submit a SmartForm back to me via email

What you need: LiveCycle Designer

Use LiveCycle Designer to create the form, and add a “Submit by Email” button to your form.

Note: You will receive the form data as XML. You will then need to use Acrobat to re-inject this XML data back into a blank copy of your form. If you want to avoid this manual process, and allow your users to submit the form directly as PDF, you will need Reader Extensions for your SmartForm or Acrobat for your users (see below).

Allow a user to submit a SmartForm back to me via the web (i.e. http or https) avoiding manual data re-keying

What you need: LiveCycle Designer, some server infrastructure

Just use LiveCycle Designer to create the form, and add a “Submit” button to your form.


  • You will need to create a Java servlet or ASP.net server or PHP server or some other technology to actually receive or process the incoming submission. This means that you will need to get programmers involved – they can use the tools of their choice – it’s just the usual web request “thing”.
  • Alternately, you can use a LiveCycle server to process the incoming http request. You will then be able to process the incoming request in a completely graphical “workflow” environment without any coding. You will need to acquire a copy of:
  • LiveCycle Foundation (at a minimum). You cannot buy Foundation, it is bundled with other LiveCycle services, so you will need to pick the most appropriate one. Contact info@avoka.com for advice.
  • Avoka’s Process Invoker. This is the “bridge” between the incoming web request and the LiveCycle engine. http://www.avoka.com/avoka/addons.shtml#invoker
  • If you want to turn the submitted XML back into a PDF, you’ll need either LiveCycle Forms or LiveCycle Process Management.

Allow a user to save a partially completed form offline or call a web service from within a Form or Submit or Send a form as PDF rather than XML

What you need: LiveCycle Designer and LiveCycle Reader Extensions for your form, or Adobe Acrobat for each of your users.

Using the free Adobe Reader, your users can save a copy of your blank SmartForm to their machines. But once they start entering data, they can’t save that partially completed form (they can only print it or submit it). There are also a number of additional capabilities that can only be performed in Acrobat (and not in Reader), including:

  • Invoking a web service from a form (for example, to convert a dollar amount to some other currency)
  • Commenting on a form
  • Digitally signing a form
  • Submitting or sending a form as PDF (a normal submission just sends the XML data contained in the form, but not the form itself)

If you want to allow your users to save a partially completed form, or perform one of these other actions, then you can purchase “Reader Extensions” for your form. By applying Reader Extensions to a particular form, this temporarily extends the capabilities of Reader to allow these features for this particular form. You can purchase Adobe Reader Extensions from Adobe Enterprise Partners.

Alternately, you can purchase a copy of Acrobat for each of your users – this may be more cost effective if you have a large number of forms and a small number of users.

Alternately, Adobe Acrobat provides a “cut-down” version of Reader Extensions built it. It only provides some of the above features, and is limited to a small number of forms and small number of end-users. Contact your Adobe Enterprise Partner to find out whether you can use this feature for your scenario.

Pre-fill a form with information that I already know about the user (or some other information)

What you need: LiveCycle Forms or LiveCycle Process Management

Your user has already logged into your site, so you know who they are and other information about them. When they open a form, it’s “polite” to pre-fill the PDF with information you already know about them, to a) avoid them having to re-key it b) reduce errors in their typing. LiveCycle Forms is a server product that that allow you to inject data into any LiveCycle Form prior to serving it up to your users. LiveCycle Process Management is actually a tool for automating human-oriented activities within your organization, but it also includes a light-weight version of the service that allows you to inject data into a form. Contact your Adobe Enterprise Partner for more information on which of these two services is best for your needs.

What else you get:

  • Common and Foundation

Provide a user with a printable record or receipt of their interaction with my site

What you need: LiveCycle Output

Your user has already performed some sort of interaction with your site (bought something, filled in a html or PDF form, made a booking, or whatever), and you want to present them with a PDF that is a permanent and printable record of that interaction. Build a LiveCycle SmartForm, and use LiveCycle Output to turn that form into a “flattened” PDF form. It’s now a regular PDF document, without the ability to make any changes to the values of any fields.

What else you get:

  • Common and Foundation (see below)
  • LiveCycle Output also includes facilities for printing PDF forms directly from the server to a network printer.
  • LiveCycle Output also allows you to create documents of record in an ISO archiving format.

Digitally sign my outbound documents to give my users a sense of security that it did come from me and hasn’t been changed

What you need: LiveCycle Digital Signatures

With Livecycle Digital Signatures, you can apply a digital signature to a PDF you’ve created with LiveCycle Designer, or any other PDF document. This can be signed with your corporate (or personal) digital signature. The signing process is automated on the LiveCycle server, and can be invoked programmatically from existing applications, or can be easily incorporated into human processes.

What else you get:

  • By signing a document, you make it tamper-proof – if anyone attempts (either maliciously or accidentally) to modify the document in any way, it will invalidate the signature.
  • Common and Foundation (see below).

Enter into binding agreements with my customers or suppliers without paper signatures

What you need: LiveCycle Digital Signatures and Reader Extensions

Create a PDF SmartForm with a digital signature field. Post this form on your web site. When users have completed the form, they can use their digital signature to sign the form, and submit it back to you as a signed PDF. You can use the Digital Signatures service on the LiveCycle server to authenticate the signature, obtain information about the person signing, and validate that the document has not been changed since it was signed.

You can use the signature for non-repudiation – in other words, if the person who signed the document says that it wasn’t them, you can show them their digital signature, and since only they can sign things with their digital signature, it had to be that person.

Note: You will need to have a closed user group where you can roll out electronic signatures. For electronic signatures to be valuable, they have to be issued by a certification authority who make you prove who you are, and will attest that you are who you say you are. (You can create self-signed certificates quite easily, but there’s nothing from stopping me from creating one that says I’m Warren Buffet. A certification authority will require proof that I am in fact Warren Buffet before issueing me a signature in that name. Some countries and organizations are starting to roll out digital certificates more broadly.)

What else you get:

  • By signing a document, your users make it tamper-proof – if anyone attempts (either maliciously or accidentally) to modify the document in any way, it will invalidate the signature. That way you can prove that it hasn’t been tampered with.
  • You can also add a digital signature field to any PDF document on the server (not just SmartForms), and send that to your users for signature.
  • You also get services for encrypting a PDF with a password or certificate.
  • Common and Foundation (see below).

Capture data from a printed PDF Smartform with 100% reliability and without Optical Character Recognition or manual data entry.

What you need: LiveCycle Barcoded Forms

Create a PDF SmartForm with a 2-D barcode field on it. The barcode can store up to about 512 characters of information, and can be set up to automatically capture information from the SmartForm fields as the user types into the form. When the form is printed, the barcode contains all the information entered into the form. Instead of OCR-ing the text in the form, simply scan the barcode and get all the data. 100% accuracy – you get all the data in one scan.

Turn Office documents into PDFs on the server.

What you need: LiveCycle PDF Generator

Pass any common office document (Word, Excel, Powerpoint, Open Office, many picture formats and other document formats) to PDF Generator, and it will turn it into a PDF. The recipient will not need to have the original application in order to read the document. Can be easily integrated into manual, ad-hoc processes, or invoked from other appliations in order to automate backend processes.

Add Reader Extensions, and cater for ad-hoc commenting and review processes using the capabilities of Adobe Reader.

What else you get:

  • You can also do a lot of other types of translations, such as images to PDF, PDF to images, etc.

Store any documents created using LiveCycle (or any other document) in a Document Management System

What you need: LiveCycle Content Services or ECM (Enterprise Content Management) Connectors

You may want to store your documents in a document repository for archiving, or so that users can find all document relating to a particular subject or case or client or whatever. Adobe provide ECM (Enterprise Content Management) Connectors that allow you to store, retrieve and manage documents in many different enterprise document repositories. If you don’t already have a document repository, Adobe provide Document Services, a light-weight but powerful and scalable document management system that is fully integrated with the LiveCycle system.

Content services contains it’s own user interface for browsing, searching, editing, and uploading documents called ContentSpace.

Create approval or back-office processes within my organization

What you need: LiveCycle Process Management

LiveCycle Process Management is a state of the art human-oriented Business Process Management System (BPMS). Processes are generally invoked when someone submits a form (although there are lots of other ways of invoking a process). You can then route a form to a manager or process worker for approval or action. You can also augment the data in the form by fetching additional data from other internal systems (e.g. databases), save form data out to internal systems (e.g. file system, document management systems), send and receive emails, add attachments, send reminders, automatically escalate or deadline tasks to ensure Service Level Agreements, and much more.

What else you get:

  • Workspace: An end-user portal where you can initiate new processes, or view your inbox to find tasks that have been allocated to you or a group you belong to.
  • Business Activity Monitoring: Dashboards and reports that allow you to view workloads and throughputs, bottlenecks in your process and much more.
  • By combining with other LiveCycle services, you can archive documents, merge documents together, send emails, etc.

Host documents on a public-facing site, with pre-population, save-online, receipts, branding, online payment processing, versioning

What you need: Avoka Form Center

Adobe LiveCycle provides all the core services to create, host, pre-populate and process SmartForms. However, if you actually want to create a portal for doing all these things, you have to build it yourself in Java or .Net or some other technology – it’s not provided “in the box”.

Avoka Form Center is built upon Adobe LiveCycle. It provides a rich form-hosting portal that allows public or occasional internal users to:

  • Locate forms
  • Fill them in
  • Save partically completed forms in a drafts location online
  • Pre-fill forms based on configurable “profile” information
  • Brand the same SmartForm differently depending on the origin of the request, or the user login details
  • Automate payment processing for forms that incur a cost
  • Provide a history of all submitted forms
  • Provide an automatic receipt on completion

Form Center also provides an extensive administrative module, that allows forms to be uploaded, configured, versioned, branded, and much more.


What are “Common” and “Foundation”?

Common and Foundation are a set of lower level services that are bundled along with other LiveCycle services. You cannot buy these on their own. Foundation is always included with every LiveCycle product. The Common services that are bundled vary from product to product. Please contact info@avoka.com for more details if you’re unsure.

  • Common includes services for combining multiple PDFs into one, adding watermarks, adding table of contents, headers, and footers, extracting and injecting data and meta-data, encryption, and more.
  • Foundation gives you fantastic integration capabilities with databases, email, file system, messaging and directory services, XML manipulation, and more. This is stuff that the EAI (Enterprise Application Integration) vendors charge you big bucks for, and Adobe gives you for free (with other products).
  • The orchestration engine underlying the whole of LiveCycle provides a graphical user interface for defining your “workflows” – no coding required.
  • The orchestration engine is inherently extensible – we’ve never found something that a client wanted it to do that we couldn’t make it do.

March 1, 2009

What do the LiveCycle ‘Process Fields’ really do?


In order to integrate a LiveCyc le PDF form into LiveCycle Process Management, you need to embed some special fields into your form.

The LiveCycle documentation does indicate what these fields are for, but doesn’t really explain exactly how they are used and populated.

Process Field Documentation Link

This blog entry explains how it all really works.

The Fields

The Process fields inside Designer look like this:


The scenarios

When integrating with Process Management, the form will be presented inside Workspace. There are a number of scenarios:

  1. A user is submitting a form within Workspace (either to initiate a process, or as an item in their To Do list)
  2. The user has taken an initialization form offline
  3. The user has taken a form from their inbox offline.

Submitting a form within Workspace

In fact, for this basic scenario, you don’t need the process fields at all. All you really need is a Submit button.

However, if you do use the process fields, you get a few extra capabilities, including user choices, and the option to take the form offline.

The field AWS_SUBMIT is a regular button that contains some Javascript code. This code, among other things, checks whether you’re running in an online (within Workspace) or offline mode. If you’re running online, it simply sends a “click” event to the real submit button, FSSUBMIT_ (which is a hidden http submit button).

Apart from the choice fields described below, none of the other fields are necessary – LiveCycle knows exactly who you are, and what you’re doing, because you’re logged into a live session in Workspace. It’s only when you take a form offline that the other fields are necessary.

Giving the user a choice

Sometimes you want to give your users a choice, which will affect the routes that are taken within the LiveCycle process. If you put a bit of text into the AWS_CHOICE text field, such as “Approve,Deny”, the Javascript code will:

  • Display the Action dropdown (if there are no choices, it will be hidden)
  • Populate the Action dropdown with the values from the AWS_CHOICE field.

It will look something like this:


You can put your own comma-separated text into AWS_CHOICE, but LiveCycle will automatically do a whole bunch of useful things for you.

  • When you create a User Assign Task step in your workflow, check the checkbox that says “Populate Form with Routes”. LiveCycle will then look at all the route names coming out of your User step, and populate AWS_CHOICE with the route names.
  • When the user submits the form, LiveCycle will interrogate the value of the Action dropdown, and automatically route the process down the selected route.

Note: If you choose not to use this option, you can simply create rules in your routes that interrogate other data within your form to decide which route to follow.

Note: Certain route names are associated with special icons in Workspace. These are “Approve” and “Reject” (or maybe “Deny”, I forget.) You can configure these special icons and their associated routenames from Adminui.

Taking a form offline.

Once you take a form offline, it is “disconnected” from Workspace. You can fill it in, and when you click the Submit button, it will be submitted via email, rather than over the web. The AWS_Submit button has logic to determine whether you’re online or offline, and submit either via the web or via email.

If you’re submitting via email, the form needs to know what email address to submit it to. This email address is automatically populated by LiveCycle into the AWS_MAILTO field when you take the form offline. Like all the other fields, there’s no real magic – you can set the field to an email address manually or in code if you want to, but generally it’s easier and safer to let the LiveCycle server take care of this for you.

Note: In order to allow offline submissions, you need to set up a email box, and configure LiveCycle to monitor this email box. That’s the subject of another blog sometime. Email info-at-avoka.com if you’re having trouble.

When you submit your form data via email, LiveCycle no longer knows anything about you, or why you’re submitting the form. It simply knows that an email arrived in an inbox containing some XML as an attachment. So…

When you take the form offline, LiveCycle injects some data into a few fields:

  • When you take an initialization form offline, the LiveCycle server will populate AWS_PROCESSTYPE with the name of the process that should be initiated when you submit the form. When you submit the form via email, LiveCycle will start the named process on your behalf, using the data from the email attachment.
  • When you take a form in your inbox offline, the LiveCycle server will populate AWS_TASKID with the id of the task that this relates to. When the submit the form via email, LiveCycle will complete that task on your behalf.
  • In both cases, LiveCycle will use the email address of the sender of the email of the email to determine who the “completer” was. Warning: make sure you send from an email associated with your LiveCycle identity – if LiveCycle doesn’t recognize the sender, it will treat the email as spam, and silently discard the incoming email. (I haven’t verified this lately, but it used to work this way.)
  • In both cases, the LiveCycle server will populate the AWS_ASSIGNEDID with the internal LiveCycle ID of the user who was originally assigned this form. I have no idea whether this is used for anything, or why it might be useful to either you or LiveCycle.
  • Finally, once you submit via email, Reader will set the AWS_STATUS field from ” ” to “Submitted”. Once this field has the “Submitted” value, you will not be able to submit the form again. This simply prevents duplicate submissions being accidentally emailed.


While there’s quite a bit of logic associated with these fields, both within the form and with the LiveCycle server, you don’t really need to know how it all works. Just drop the fields into your form, and LiveCycle takes care of the rest. It is helpful, however, to know how this works, so that you can tweak the behaviour if necessary.

Create a free website or blog at WordPress.com.